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Periodontitis: Causes, Risk Factors, and Treatment

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Periodontitis is the inflammation in the teeth and supporting gums. It is a serious gum disease that can result in gum damage and can even destroy the jaw bone. Periodontitis is caused by certain periodontal bacteria in the form of dental plaque. A layer of bacteria and food debris gets build-up on areas that are hard to reach and hence results in periodontitis.

Periodontitis always begins with inflammation of the gums commonly called gingivitis. Sometimes it results in bleeding when you brush your teeth. You might notice a discolored bacterial layer on your teeth, if left untreated may result in chronic diseases or tooth loss.

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Periodontal Treatment:

The key to eliminating the periodontitis is by triggering the diseases through diagnosis. As the disease progress, the teeth can be damaged. Hence, it is necessary that the disease should be treated as early as possible. It is important to remove plaque and associated bacteria to resume dental health. A number of treatments are available depending upon the severity of the disease. Advanced cases may even require surgery.

  1. Oral Hygiene: Self-care plays a crucial role when it comes to dental health. Use a rotating brush to remove food debris from corners that can’t be easily reached. Use mouthwash and floss regularly to keep the mouth clean always. 
  2. Medications: a number of medications are available that help in pre- and post-treatment of periodontitis. Some of them are antiseptic-chip, antibiotic gel, enzyme suppressant, oral antibiotics among others. 
  3. If oral-hygiene and non-surgical treatments are not enough, there are some advanced procedures that are opted to treat periodontitis.
  • Flap Surgery: It is used to remove plaque in deep pockets. The gums are lifted to remove the tarter and then are sutured back into place. After the surgery, gums heal and get fixed to their position along with teeth. 
  • Tissue Grafts: The process is done to help restore and regenerate gum tissues. It is a surgical process that removes tissues from one site to another, without bringing its own blood supply. A new blood supply starts flowing when it is fixed. 
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration: It is a procedure that is used to regenerate tissue and repair defects. It uses a barrier membrane that directs the growth of a new bone and gum tissues wherever these are lacking.

What are the reasons that lead to periodontitis?

There are several risk factors associated with a higher risk of periodontitis some of which are;

  • Smoking
  • Hormonal changes especially in females
  • Diabetes
  • Medication drugs and agents

Periodontal Maintenance:

Periodontitis is not inevitable. It can be prevented by adopting better oral hygiene and regular dental checkups. There are basic elements that should be kept in mind for proper dental hygiene such as;

  • Cleaning the chewing area twice a day.
  • Brush and floss after every meal.
  • Pay a regular visit to your dentist for checkups and examination.

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